Some viruses have a mysterious ‘Z’ genome made from an alternate nucleotide.

Since the Watson Crick model (the first-ever model of DNA), we know that the DNA of each and every organism is made of 4 alphabets (A, T, G, C) that represent 4 different chemical bases. Of these four bases, the base A(adenine) binds with the base T(Thymine) by the help of two hydrogen bonds and the base G (Guanine) binds with C(Cytosine) with three hydrogen bonds. The three hydrogen bonds in the G:C base pair makes it more stable and a little harder to break as compared to the A:T base pair which has only two hydrogen bonds).

In 1970…


Did the double mutant help set a world record?

Photo by Aakanksha Panwar on Unsplash

India ranked highest in the world with its daily cases reaching as high as 3,14,835 last Thursday(22/04/2021). As the second wave mercilessly crashes through the country breaking the healthcare system and eating up the crematoriums, the people let out their loudest cry for help. Several questions are unclear as the data are not disclosed publicly, although several doctors and scientists report that they observe a different trend in the cases during the second wave. …


Are nasal sprays an option for COVID-19 therapeutics?

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/nov/22/nasal-spray-which-could-fight-covid-and-other-respiratory-infections-gets-funding

As many would say, the new nasal sp(ray) by the Vancouver-based biotech company SaNOtize could indeed turn out to be another ray of sunshine in the COVID-19 chaos. The anti-COVID nasal spray is said to have yielded promising results in the clinical trials performed in UK and Canada. While the company is preparing to submit results to the worldwide regulators for emergency approval, let’s see how this spray actually works.

The major component of the spray is Nitric Oxide (NO), which is a Nano molecule naturally produced by the body, which is…


I recently had my vaccine shot and was elated, I went around spreading the joyous news to everyone I know. Not all my friends were happy to hear the news, I was shocked by their reaction, I soon realised that they were not alone and despite the plethora of information available, there are many with a lot of questions. I decided I’d do my share and start by answering the basic few

image source — https://www.paho.org/en/news/14-7-2020-countries-americas-pool-efforts-ensure-access-covid-19-vaccines

What are Vaccines?

Given the pandemic, most of you would’ve already been aware of this, yet this question is so important that I’d go ahead and reiterate it. Vaccines usually contain…

Rajyalakshmi balaji

Immunology graduate

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